Technical description of a computer

Digital simulations, such as this one for Apollo 17which include the pad-load data needed for the simulation though not necessarily identical to what was needed for the actual mission.

Technical description of a computer

Motivation[ edit ] Due to the exploding complexity of digital electronic circuits since the s see Moore's lawcircuit designers needed digital logic descriptions to be performed at a high level without being tied to a specific electronic technology, such as CMOS or BJT.

HDLs were created to implement register-transfer level abstraction, a model of the data flow and timing of a circuit. There are different types of description in them "dataflow, behavioral and structural".

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Example of dataflow of HDL: ALL; entity not1 is port a: Like concurrent programming languages, HDL syntax and semantics include explicit notations for expressing concurrency. However, in contrast to most software programming languagesHDLs also include an explicit notion of time, which is a primary attribute of hardware.

Languages whose only characteristic is to express circuit connectivity between a hierarchy of blocks are properly classified as netlist languages used in electric computer-aided design CAD.

HDL can be used to express designs in structural, behavioral or register-transfer-level architectures for the same circuit functionality; in the latter two cases the synthesizer decides the architecture and logic gate layout.

HDLs are used to write executable specifications for hardware. A program designed to implement the underlying semantics of the language statements and simulate the progress of time provides the hardware designer with the ability to model a piece of hardware before it is created physically.

It is this executability that gives HDLs the illusion of being programming languageswhen they are more precisely classified as specification languages or modeling languages. Simulators capable of supporting discrete-event digital and continuous-time analog modeling exist, and HDLs targeted for each are available.

Generally, however, software programming languages do not include any capability for explicitly expressing time, and thus cannot function as hardware description languages.

System Verilog is the first major HDL to offer object orientation and garbage collection.

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Using the proper subset of hardware description language, a program called a synthesizer, or logic synthesis toolcan infer hardware logic operations from the language statements and produce an equivalent netlist of generic hardware primitives[ jargon ] to implement the specified behaviour.

Digital logic synthesizers, for example, generally use clock edges as the way to time the circuit, ignoring any timing constructs.

The ability to have a synthesizable subset of the language does not itself make a hardware description language. History[ edit ] The first hardware description languages appeared in the late s, looking like more traditional languages. Separate work done about at the University of Kaiserslautern produced a language called KARL "KAiserslautern Register Transfer Language"which included design calculus language features supporting VLSI chip floorplanning[ jargon ] and structured hardware design.

Technical description of a computer

Ina request from the U. HDL simulation enabled engineers to work at a higher level of abstraction than simulation at the schematic level, and thus increased design capacity from hundreds of transistors to thousands.

Technical description of a computer

Synthesis tools compiled HDL source files written in a constrained format called RTL into a manufacturable netlist description in terms of gates and transistors. Writing synthesizable RTL files required practice and discipline on the part of the designer; compared to a traditional schematic layout, synthesized RTL netlists were almost always larger in area and slower in performance[ citation needed ].

Specialized HDLs such as Confluence were introduced with the explicit goal of fixing specific limitations of Verilog and VHDL, though none were ever intended to replace them.

Over the years, much effort has been invested in improving HDLs. A future revision of VHDL is also in development[ when? Design using HDL[ edit ] As a result of the efficiency gains realized using HDL, a majority of modern digital circuit design revolves around it.

Most designs begin as a set of requirements or a high-level architectural diagram. Control and decision structures are often prototyped in flowchart applications, or entered in a state diagram editor. The process of writing the HDL description is highly dependent on the nature of the circuit and the designer's preference for coding style.

Designers often use scripting languages such as Perl to automatically generate repetitive circuit structures in the HDL language. The HDL code then undergoes a code review, or auditing. In preparation for synthesis, the HDL description is subject to an array of automated checkers.

The checkers report deviations from standardized code guidelines, identify potential ambiguous code constructs before they can cause misinterpretation, and check for common logical coding errors, such as floating ports or shorted outputs.

This process aids in resolving errors before the code is synthesized.This FAQ answers some questions related to the technical workings of Wikipedia, including software and hardware.

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This means the indicator will be prone to whipsaws over 50% of the time or when a security is not trending. This FAQ answers some questions related to the technical workings of Wikipedia, including software and hardware.

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